FREUD, Sigmund, (1856-1939), Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis. Studied in Vienna under Ernst Brücke (1876-82), in Paris under Charcot (1885-86); on staff of Vienna General Hospital (1882-85); professor of neuropathology (1902-38), U. of Vienna; maintained private psychoanalytic practice; worked with Breuer on the treatment of hysteria by hypnosis; developed (1892-95) method of treatment (which served as basis of his psychoanalysis) in which he replaced hypnosis by free association of ideas. Increasing recognition of the psychoanalytic movement made possible the formation in 1910 of a worldwide organization called the International Psychoanalytic Association. Freud was forced to leave Vienna by Nazi regime (1938), thereafter living in London. Among his works are Studies on Hysteria (with Josef Breuer 1895), The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904) and Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory (1905) Totem and Taboo (1913), Ego and the Id (1923), New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1933), and Moses and Monotheism (1939).
Analysts and therapists